Blood smears from 54 platypuses in southeastern Australia were examined by light microscopy. Protozoa were found in erythrocytes in 53 platypuses; all infections were sparse. A few parasites were found in leukocytes. Intraerythrocytic forms examined by electron microscopy contained vacuoles, micronemes, rhoptries and cytostomes with double unit membranes. Merozoites were identified in leukocytes. The parasites were identified as Theileria ornithorhynchi Mackerras, 1959.
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