Metabolic syndrome (MetS) obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions on renal parameters and putative metabolic, neuroadrenergic and hemodynamic mediators of renal injury.
Untreated men and women (mean age 55 ± 1 years; BMI 32.7 ± 0.6 kg/m) without pre-existing renal dysfunction, who fulfilled MetS criteria were randomized to dietary weight loss (WL, n = 13), weight loss combined with aerobic exercise (WL + EX, n = 13), or no treatment (control, n = 12). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 24 h urinary albumin excretion, plasma renin activity (PRA), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), anthropometric, metabolic and fitness variables were measured at baseline and week 12.
Body weight decreased by -8.2 ± 0.8% in the WL and -10.7 ± 0.9% in the WL + EX groups (both P < 0.001). Fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) increased by 15 ± 5% and BRS by 5.5 ± 2.4 ms/mmHg in the WL + EX group only (P < 0.05). Serum creatinine decreased by -8.1 ± 4.8%, (WL, P = 0.016) and -14.9 ± 3.0% (WL + EX, P < 0.001). Estimated GFR increased commensurately but the increment was greater in the WL + EX group (P = 0.04). Albuminuria (P < 0.05) and MSNA (P < 0.001) decreased similarly in both groups, whereas PRA, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, uric acid and DBP decreased only in the WL + EX group (all P < 0.05).
Moderate weight loss in obese MetS patients is associated with a reduction in albuminuria and an improvement in eGFR which is augmented by exercise co-intervention.
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